These calculations are used to plan each Wayeh litter.
Co-efficient of Inbreeding (COI)
COI is how inbred the pedigree of a
particular dog is. It is a mathematical estimate of inbreeding, but we
have not yet mapped the genome in a practical way for breeders, so it's still a
calculation, not a fact -- but a calculation based on the science of statistics.
COI is one of the tools a breeder can use as a guideline to build pedigrees that
are either outcrossed or inbred, and how much so. Ten generations is the
standard used by geneticists in calculating COI.
If you bred a Golden Retriever to a Poodle
the 10-gen COI would be 0% because there would be no common ancestors in 10
generations. This is no guarantee that both parents didn't carry dangerous
or unwelcome genes -- especially if you don't bother checking -- because all
dogs are dogs. But the likelihood is less that you'll double up on these
same dangerous genes, AND you'd be increasing the odds of genetic diversity.
All purebred dog populations are inbred to a certain extent, because we've
closed the studbooks to new bloodlines in nearly all breeds.
In Malamutes a 10-gen COI of 0% is nearly
impossible because of three things:
The genetic bottleneck in
the 1950s which lead to the re-opening of the studbooks to allow the M'Loot
and Hinman third strain to join the Kotzebue. Since then, there are a
handful of pure Kotzebue dogs left, and none of the M'Loot and Hinman third
strain. Today, all modern pedigrees of Malamutes (save those rare and
wonderful pure K dogs) are roughly half Kotzebue and half M'Loot, by
pedigree, with a tiny bit of the third strain dogs. The trick is, of
course, how those pedigrees are arranged.
Blended pedigrees because
of the advances in transportation, the internet, and veterinary medicine.
Until recently, it was possible to have relatively isolated populations of
purebred dogs -- kennels or countries that rarely saw new pedigrees except
from their neighbors. Now you can buy semen half-way around the globe
and have it frozen and then surgically implanted in your bitch. This
is wonderful, and terrible, as well. It's wonderful finding new
pedigrees to help you fix a problem. It's terrible because we no
longer have those isolated kennels to which we can go when we need to fix a
Popular inbred pedigrees
are the norm in what I consider the top 3 kennels of major influence --
Uyak, Storm Kloud, and Nanuke. At least one of these three
kennels have been contributors to most modern Malamutes -- save the few
wonderful pure Kotzebue pedigrees. They are highly inbred on
themselves, doubling and tripling and sometimes a lot more than that on
themselves, in order to achieve uniformity. Inbreeders can always
argue the benefits of inbreeding. And to an outcrosser like me, it is
wonderful that they are inbreeding so that I can dip into their gene pools
as needed. But for the sake of genetic diversity, I would never
inbreed that much over that many generations, even if they have had
tremendous success doing so. Wayeh pedigrees include all three of
these kennels, but not always all three in the same dog. We started
with Uyak and went back to Uyak repeatedly. We also have a strong dose
of Storm Kloud and Nanuke. We are getting away from the later two and
adding in Black Ice. But our Black Ice pedigrees have a little Uyak
and Storm Kloud in them as well. Our heavily inbred pedigrees are:
inbred Uyak @ Wayeh - Yogi, Honey,
& Wayeh's Summer & Wayeh's Faith
inbred Storm Kloud @ Wayeh - Rider
bred to Summer to produce Singer
inbred Nanuke @ Wayeh - Charles
At Wayeh, we are striving for generations
of CERF/Thyroid/OFA working obedience dogs who are outcrossed (10-gen COI below
Co-efficient of Relationship (COR)
COR is how much a particular dog influences
a pedigree -- statistically. Just because you put Uyak Buffalo Bill in a
pedigree 30 times, doesn't mean you're getting another Bill. Every
generation between then and now has made decisions that eliminate or concentrate
genes, sometimes wisely, sometimes recklessly. But if you build a pedigree
you can look at the dogs who have the most influence, and you're more likely to
get some of their strengths and some of their weaknesses.
See individual litter pages for
individual COI/COR calculations.